The three-degree and four-point method is widely used in China, and it is divided into I degree, shallow II degree, deep II degree and III degree according to the depth of burn. Clinically, I degree and shallow II degree are shallow burns, and deep II and III degrees are deep burns.
I degree burns: Injury to the superficial epidermis, the basal layer remains. Local skin is red, swollen, painful, burning, no blister, and healed in 3 to 5 days. There is no scar after the healing, and there may be temporary pigmentation.
Shallow second degree burns: involving the epidermis and dermal papillary layer, local redness and swelling, more oozing fluids, forming blister of different sizes, wound surface moist, fresh red, edema, severe pain; if no infection can be cured within 2 weeks, no Scar formation can have temporary pigmentation. Deep second degree burns: involving the dermal reticular layer, but still leaving some of the dermis and skin attachments. Local swelling, white or brownish yellow, blistering is small. Feeling slow, skin temperature is slightly lower, and the pain is lighter. If there is no infection, it can heal within 3 to 4 weeks, and the scar remains after the healing, but the skin function is basically preserved.
III degree burns: involving the entire layer of the skin even subcutaneous fat, muscles, internal organs. The wound is pale or charred, no pain, no blistering, feeling disappeared, and the texture is tough like leather. After 3 to 4 weeks, the granule tissue was left behind after the eschar was shed, and the scar was left behind, and the skin function was lost, causing deformity. Acid burns generally do not blister and quickly become sputum. The burned sputum of sulfuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid are dark brown, yellow brown and yellow respectively; the deeper the burn, the darker the sputum, the more obvious the invagination of the sputum, and the harder the texture. Alkali burn wounds are sticky or sap-like eschar, reddish color, small blisters, generally deep, eschar or necrotic tissue detached, the wound is sunken, the edge sneak, often unhealed. In particular, impaired respiratory function is one of the important causes of death.
Once burned (hot) injury Typical cause: no scar formation after sunburn injury.
The epidermis was flushed and there was burning pain in the area, which gradually eased in about 3 days. After about 5 to 7 days of healing, localized desquamation.
Typical causes of shallow second degree burn (hot) injury: the incidence of scarring in boiling water is 4 to 19%
There is bodily fluid exudation. The part is reddish brown and can present blisters. Local is sensitive to stimuli and pain is obvious. It usually recovers after 1 to 2 weeks. Generally, there will be pigment changes in the part after healing.
Typical cause of deep second degree burn (hot) injury: hot oil burn scar incidence rate of 50 ~ 83%
The area was slightly pale, the local part was slow to stimulate, and the pain was not obvious. It usually takes about 3 weeks to heal.
Third degree burn (hot) injury Typical cause: hot water bag, exhaust pipe almost always scar hyperplasia
The scald is partially pale or has a black dry sputum, which is irritating and painless, and the chance of infection is greater. It is generally necessary to perform surgical closure of the wound.